YaSM and USMBOK

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Comparison: YaSM and USMBOK™ (Universal Service Management Body of Knowledge)

Part of: YaSM vs. other service management frameworks and standards

 

About USMBOK™

USMBOK™ (Universal Service Management Body of Knowledge) [1] is a service management framework that continues to gain in popularity.

As the authors of USMBOK state, "USMBOK includes a set of generally accepted terms, methods, concepts and best practices". The framework "introduces outside-in or customer centric thinking to the traditional ITSM thinking", while sharing many of its underlying principles with other service management frameworks and standards such as ITIL® [2] and ISO/IEC 20000 (USMBOK specifically refers to a "service management system", a term which figures prominently in ISO 20000). [Clayton, 2012]

For those reasons, it was both desirable and feasible to take the guidance in USMBOK into account when developing YaSM. YaSM, however, cannot claim to be a "USMBOK process model". Organizations that want to achieve close alignment of their processes with the USMBOK recommendations are advised to obtain additional guidance from the USMBOK publications.


Note: YaSM is not endorsed by the authors of USMBOK.

 

USMBOK service lifecycle stages and related YaSM processes

The USMBOK guide includes a description of the service lifecycle, representing significant service stages from identification of an opportunity to provide a service to service retirement. For each lifecycle stage, USMBOK describes a number of elements:

  • Primary inputs
  • Primary outputs
  • Major influences from the customer perspective
  • Major influences from the service provider perspective
  • Major activities performed during the stage.

The following table provides an overview of how each stage in the USMBOK™ service lifecycle relates to one or several YaSM service management processes, to illustrate that YaSM and USMBOK share many basic principles. Its aim is not to provide a detailed and scientifically correct cross-reference between the two frameworks.

Note: This table is based on the 2012 edition of the USMBOK Guide.

 

USMBOK™ service lifecycle stages Related YaSM processes Notes
1 The Opportunity Stage
  • YaSM's customer relationship management process is in charge of communicating with existing and potential new customers in order to identify the customers' needs and opportunities for providing services.
  • Once the customers' needs and opportunities are identified, the strategic process is in a position to decide upon the range of services to be offered to customers. This includes initiating the introduction of new or significantly changed services.
2 Require
  • Requirements from the customer viewpoint for new or significantly changed services are defined as part of YaSM's service design process.
3 Define
4 Plan
  • -/-
5 Concept
  • Once the service properties are specified in a (draft) service definition, the service design process draws up a service implementation blueprint, which describes the components required for providing the service and how those components will be set up.
6 Approve
  • Approval for the design stage of a new or significantly changed service is given by the strategic process, as part of its decision to start a service development project.
7 Design
  • -/-
8 Develop (Build)
  • -/-
9 Assure
10 Deploy
  • The YaSM process for building new services is responsible for deploying the required service components.
11 Commission
  • -/-
  • This USMBOK lifecycle stage cannot be directly related to particular YaSM processes.
  • A number of YaSM service management processes may contribute to support services immediately after their deployment; for example, service operation may monitor particular parts of the (newly deployed) service infrastructure to verify if the service performs as expected under real customer workload.
12 Operate and Support
  • -/-
13 Maintain
  • -/-
14 Revise
  • -/-
15 Retire
  • -/-
  • There is no specific process in YaSM for retiring services; if services are to be retired, this can be accomplished with the processes used for setting up or changing services.

 

 

USMBOK knowledge domains/ areas and related YaSM processes

The following tables provide an overview of how each USMBOK knowledge domain/ area relates to one or several YaSM processes:


Note: This information is based on the 2012 edition of the USMBOK Guide.

 

1 - Service Customer Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
1.1 Governance and Regulations Management
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • The YaSM process for setting up the service management system (SMS) is responsible for defining, maintaining, reviewing and improving a set of suitable service management processes and policies. This includes the processes and policies related to governance.
  • Other YaSM processes also contribute to ensuring that the service provider organization is managed in a transparent and consistent manner.
  • The strategic process sets the strategic objectives for the organization as a whole.
1.2 Policy Management System
1.3 Customer Portfolio Management
  • The strategic process establishes which markets and customers are to be served by the service provider's range of services. This includes initiating the development of new or significantly changed services.
1.4 Customer Relationship Management
  • -/-
1.5 Customer Continuity Management
  • -/-
1.6 Customer Risk Management
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • A number of YaSM processes are tasked with managing risks of particular types, for example security risks or risks associated with disaster events.
1.7 Customer Requirements Management
  • YaSM's customer relationship management process is responsible for communicating with existing and potential new customers in order to identify the customers' needs.
  • Detailed service requirements are defined as part of the service design stage.

 

2 - Service Fulfillment Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
2.1 Service Marketing
  • --/--
2.2 Service Planning
  • The strategic process is responsible for deciding which services are to be offered to customers and for ensuring that those services are being developed. The range of services is documented in the service portfolio, which is kept up to date by YaSM's service portfolio maintenance process.
  • The detailed properties of the services are defined in the service design stage, taking into account the customer needs identified by customer relationship management.
2.3 Service Provision Management
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • YaSM puts the strategic process in charge of assessing on a strategic level whether services can be provided more efficiently or effectively.
  • The service improvement process will review existing services on a regular basis in order to identify potentials for improvement.
  • The process for maintaining the SMS performs regular reviews of the service management processes to assess their effectiveness and efficiency.
2.4 Provider Relationship Management
  • -/-
2.5 Service Request Management
  • USMBOK defines a service request as "any request that may require resources from the service provider organization".
  • YaSM distinguishes between requests for new or significantly changed services, and "normal" requests for service within the context of existing services (e.g. a request to reset a password).
  • Requests for new services are typically handled by customer relationship management. The strategic process is in charge of deciding whether a new service will be introduced. Service enhancements on a smaller scale may be implemented through the service improvement process.
  • "Normal" service requests are handled by the YaSM process for resolving incidents and service requests.
2.6 Service Opportunity Management
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • The YaSM processes stated here are examples for processes where opportunities are identified to increase the value of services delivered to customers.

 

3 - Service Quality Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
3.1 Service Quality Planning
  • These USMBOK knowledge areas provide guidance for "implementing [the service provider's] quality policy" and cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • The YaSM process for setting up the service management system (SMS) is responsible for defining, maintaining, reviewing and improving a set of service management processes and policies. This effectively includes the definition of the service provider's quality management system.

3.2 Service Excellence

3.3 Service Lifecycle Management

3.4 Capability Management

3.5 Performance Management

3.6 Audit and Assessment Management

 

4 - Service Delivery Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
4.1 Service Level Management
  • YaSM does not include a specific process for managing service levels. Rather, several service lifecycle processes cooperate to manage service levels.
  • The required service levels - as well as the required service functionality - are defined in the service design stage, based on the needs of the customer. This effectively specifies the service level objectives for the organizational units involved in providing and supporting the services.
  • Data collection and service level reporting is the responsibility of service operation. The service improvement process will review the achieved service levels against the committed levels and initiate corrective action if required.
  • The service owners are ultimately responsible for delivering the agreed service levels and play a key role in these activities.
4.2 Service Asset Management
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • A number of YaSM processes are concerned with the acquisition, use and reallocation of assets, in particular the service lifecycle processes and the supplier management process.
  • The configuration management process is in charge of tracking those types of assets which are dealt with as configuration items.
  • The financial management process provides insight into the costs for service provisioning, which includes tracking of financial information related to service assets.
4.3 Service Security Management
  • -/-
4.4 Service Capacity Management
  • YaSM does not contain a specific capacity management process but treats service capacity and performance as aspects to be managed through the service lifecycle processes:
  • Capacity and performance requirements are defined during the service design stage, and services are then built with those requirements in mind. Service operation will be responsible for measuring capacity and performance levels, which allows the service improvement process to initiate corrective measures through service improvement plans if capacity must be adjusted or performance enhanced.
4.5 Service Continuity Management
  • -/-
4.6 Service Availability Management
  • Both YaSM and USMBOK stipulate that service availability must be managed, but YaSM does not contain a specific availability management process. Rather, service availability is treated as an aspect of services to be managed through the service lifecycle processes:
  • Availability requirements are defined during the service design stage, and services are then built with those requirements in mind. Service operation will be responsible for measuring actual availability levels, which allows the service improvement process to initiate corrective measures through service improvement plans if availability must be enhanced.

 

5 - Service Operations Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
5.1 Service Support Management
  • 1st level support is YaSM's "single point of con-tact" for service users. The incident and service request resolution process is responsible for managing requests for service, service issues, etc.
  • The customer relationship process acts as the point of contact for customers if contractual issues are to be resolved. Customer relationship management is also in charge of dealing with prospective customers.
5.2 Operations Level Management
  • YaSM's service operation process is in charge of carrying out the service provider's day-to-day operational activities.
  • The management of operations contracts (in YaSM referred to as "operational service agreements") is the responsibility of the service portfolio process, while supplier contracts (in YaSM termed "external service agreements") are dealt with in the supplier management process.
5.3 Service Supplier Management
  • -/-
5.4 Service Incident Management
  • -/-
5.5 Service Problem Management
  • -/-
5.6 Service Impact Management
  • -/-
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • With regards to "impact statements", YaSM stipulates, for example, that the problem resolution process prepare business cases for the resolution of problems. These business cases usually include a kind of impact statement by describing the consequences of not resolving the problems.

 

6 - Service Infrastructure Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
6.1 Service Facilities Management
  • YaSM treats facilities as a particular type of service infrastructure. The service lifecycle processes are in charge of designing, building and operating facilities, in line with any other components required for providing the service provider's range of services.
6.2 Service Application Management
  • YaSM treats applications as a particular type of service infrastructure. The service lifecycle processes are in charge of designing, building and operating applications, in line with any other components required for providing the service provider's range of services.
  • The supplier management process is in charge of procuring applications from software vendors.
6.3 Service Systems Management
  • YaSM's service operation process is tasked with maintaining, monitoring and repairing the systems infrastructure of services.
6.4 Service Configuration Management
  • YaSM's process for managing configuration information provides the framework for control-ling configuration items and the related configuration information. In particular, the configuration manager is responsible for specifying what types of CIs are to be controlled, and who is authorized to modify those CIs and the related contents of the CMS.
  • The actual modifications to the CMS are mostly performed by other service management processes. The configuration management process will track and verify the modifications and perform regular audits of the information in the CMS.
6.5 Service Change Management
  • USMBOK's change management knowledge area refers to change assessment and scheduling as well as change implementation.
  • The role of YaSM's change assessment process is focused specifically on assessing and coordinating (proposed) changes. RFCs may originate from a number of YaSM processes, which are responsible for implementing the changes once they are approved.
6.6 Service Release Management
  • YaSM puts the service design process in charge of designing new releases (versions) of services and their supporting infrastructure.
  • The service build process is responsible for creating and rolling out new or changed service infrastructure, which includes managing the physical storage and packaging of infrastructure components before their deployment. Source code management is considered to be an application development activity.

 

7 - Service Value Management

USMBOK™ knowledge domains/ areas Related YaSM processes Notes
7.1 Financial Management of Services
  • -/-
7.2 Service Value Mapping
  • This USMBOK knowledge area cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
  • The YaSM process most directly associated with assessing the service provider's targeted markets, high-level customer needs and competitors is the strategic process.
  • The service improvement process contains activities for identifying better ways of providing the services.
  • In both contexts, it may be beneficial to apply the concepts of Service Value Mapping as described in USMBOK.
7.3 Service Lean Thinking
  • -/-
  • This USMBOK knowledge area presents a brief summary of the Lean approach and cannot be related directly to specific YaSM processes.
7.4 Service Know-ledge Management
  • -/-
  • The YaSM model does not include a specific knowledge management process.
  • YaSM takes the view that knowledge is managed and knowledge management principles are used in several service management processes. For example, the incident resolution process manages knowledge on how to deal with certain types of service incidents.

 

References

  • [Clayton, 2012] Clayton, Ian M.: The Guide to the Universal Service Management Body of Knowledge (USMBOK™). - Service Management 101; USA, March 2012.

 

Notes

[1] USMBOK™ is a registered trade mark of Virtual Knowledge Solutions International Incorporated (VKSII).
[2] ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited.

Is based on: The YaSM Process Map. - Document: "USMBOK™ (Universal Service Management Body of Knowledge)"

By:  Stefan Kempter   and  Andrea Kempter Contributor: Andrea Kempter, IT Process Maps GbR, IT Process Maps.

 

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